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How to get better faster

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By Michael Hall,

Injured? In Pain? Here’s How to Get the Best, Fastest Result, 100% Guaranteed!

Let’s face it, who has got time to be injured? Not you that’s for sure. You have home commitments, work pressures and a life to live. The costs of missed moments and lost opportunities can be devastating. If you want to achieve the best, fastest recovery and perform at your best, read on.

What’s the secret to getting the fastest healing and the best repair?

The secret to getting the fastest healing and best repair is to understand that your body will generally go through the same stages of healing (which overlap considerably), no matter how a physical problem has occurred. Once you know what these stages are, the secret to getting the best result is simply a matter of knowing how to optimize each stage of the healing process. It means knowing the source, cause and healing stage of the “injury” and then applying the correct amounts of the right stimulus (or no stimulus), rest/recovery combined with the ideal nutritional, psychological and social surroundings to enhance cellular growth and repair. From a physical standpoint, it means minimizing bleeding and tissue destruction and then stimulating cellular healing and tissue remodeling, whilst preventing re-injury. From a psychological standpoint, it means feeling secure and relaxed knowing that you are in the best hands. From a nutritional standpoint, it means having optimal nutrients in your diet to minimize inflammation and to support the building of new tissue.

Stage 1 – The Bleeding Phase

The first stage of healing is a bleeding phase which can last from the onset of injury to 4-6 hours), where bleeding occurs into the tissue around a lesion or physical defect. Blood in the surrounding areas of an injury slows down healing as it reduces blood flow and therefore the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to damaged cells. This bleeding phase is therefore optimized by reducing bleeding which is best achieved by CRIE, that is Compression, Rest (protection from re-injury with bracing, taping, splints or slings) Ice (10-15 minutes every one to two hours) and Elevation.

Stage 2 – The Inflammatory Phase

Inflammation is characterized by pain, heat, redness, swelling, constant and night pain. It is essential for healing in that it defends the body against infection and also like a demolition company; it clears the construction site, ready for the laying down of new tissue. The problem with inflammation is that the body tends to overshoot and starts to affect healthy tissue. As inflammation is about breaking down and removing damaged tissue, healing or the laying down of new tissue will be limited whilst this process is occurring. Like the bleeding phase the other major problem of the inflammatory stage is hypoxia or the lack of delivery of oxygen due to excessive swelling. And again like the bleeding phase, the way to optimize the effectiveness of this stage is through CRIE, (or Compression, Rest (protection from re-injury) Ice and Elevation) for at least the first 48 hours and up to five days. Additionally, at Bodywise Health, we use Bodyflow, an electrical stimulation machine that facilitates circulation by removing swelling. The beauty of this therapy is that there is a portable machine which a patient can take home to apply home treatment, further accelerating healing and optimizing the repair.

Stage 3 – The Proliferation Phase

As the inflammatory phase recedes (i.e. no heat, redness, swelling and / or constant / night pain) heat can be applied to promote healing. The proliferation stage or the laying down of new tissue tends to begins to increase after day 5. The fibers of this tissue are soluble and therefore any tension applied to these fibers can easily break or reinjure them. Therefore, along with heat, easy pain free movement within tension limits is encouraged to promote blood flow and the delivery of oxygen and nutrients.

At around day 14, these fibers become progressively more insoluble and tension becomes progressively more important in aligning the fibers along the directions of force so that they can better withstand stresses. Consequently, middle to inner range isolated isometric to isotonic strengthening in the opposite direction to the injuring force, is safest and is most effective addressing the specific stabilisation deficits.

Healing, or the laying down of new tissue, actually peaks at three weeks and from there maturation of the repair continues to take place over the next 6 months and beyond. This is accompanied by progressive and more demanding functional activities and automation of control. At the same time, the functional cause or physical deficits that lead to the injury must be addressed not only to prevent re-injury but also to optimize movement performance so that wear and tear is minimized, and better results are achieved in everyday activities.

Clinical pilates, swiss ball, bosu ball, duradisc exercises and activities that make you unstable, so that you have to stabilize without thinking, are ideal for improving the automation of control as well as the efficiency, grace and effectiveness of movement. And with greater efficiency and the effectiveness of movement come more energy and an increased feeling of health and wellbeing. This is also the way to you saving on your medical bills and to living a happier, more fulfilling life.

Are you sabotaging your efforts to get better?

It is important to understand that applying the right stimulus at the wrong time as well as wrong stimulus at the right time will delay and even impede healing. For example, just today, I have had a client who applied a warm pack and “Dencorub” to an acute injury causing massive bleeding and putting back her recovery weeks if not months. Additionally, exercising at the wrong intensity at the wrong time can be just as detrimental to healing. Other factors that delay healing can be divided into two main categories:

1. General: Age, Protein deficiency, Low Vitamin C levels, Steroids & NSAID's (inhibitory effect), Temperature (lower rate when colder)

2. Local: Poor blood supply / ischemia, Adhesion to bone or other underlying tissue, Continued inflammation, Drying of the wound, Excessive movement (restarts inflammation)

How to cut weeks, if not months off the time of your treatment

In summary, weeks and months can be cut from your healing time by applying the appropriate stimulus, to the appropriate tissue, at the appropriate time. It is clinically proven that you can:

• Minimize bleeding through the use of compression / splinting, rest and elevation;

• Limit inflammation using cold packs, anti-inflammatory creams and medication;

• Optimize circulation and cellular healing with Bodyflow;

• Stimulate bone and connective tissue repair with Lipus Ultrasound;

• Promote healing with the use of heat and other electromagnetic, sonic and mechanical stimuli;

• Relax tissue tension with soft tissue massage, joint mobilization / manipulation, dry needling, acupuncture, stretching and taping / bracing support;

• Correct biomechanical stresses through specific targeted exercises;

• Increase your physical capacity with functional strengthening programs and clinical pilates;

• Prevent re-injury by correcting posture and movement patterns;

• Experience permanent relief by changing body mechanics through the use of orthotics.

Have you received all this care?

So the question is, if you have an injury, have you received all this care, packaged together so that you get the maximum benefits and, if not why not? By combining and sequencing these different modalities you can:

• Enjoy an immediate reduction in your pain;

• Cut weeks and months off your healing time;

• Save time and money having less treatment for greater effect;

• Get back to living the life you want to live without pain or limitation.

• Sleep better, look better, feel better and live better.

The choice is yours. This is what we offer you at Bodywise Health.

For more information or for an appointment, please call Bodywise Health on 1 300 263 994.

Please note:

• Rebates are available through your private insurance extras cover;

• For complex or chronic conditions, you may qualify for the EPC (Enhanced Primary Care Program) allowing you to receive 5 allied health services each calendar year with a referral from your GP. For more information, please call Bodywise Health now on 1 300 263 994.

 

References and Resources

Cook J et al (2002). Achilles tendinopathy. Manual Therapy 7(3):121-130

Culav E et al (1999) Connective tissues : Matrix composition and its relevance to physical therapy. Phys Ther 79(3):308-319

Dierich, M. P., O. Forster, H. Grunicke, W. G. Guder and H. Lang (1987). "Inflammation and phagocytosis." J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 25: 785-793.

Doillon C et al (1985). Collagen fibre formation in repair tissue. Development of strength & toughness. Coll Rel Res 5:481-92

Egozi E et al 2003; Mast cells modulate the inflammatory but not the proliferative response in healing wounds. Wound Repair & Regeneration 11(1):46-54

Evans N and Stanish W. (2000) The basic science of tendon injuries. Current Orthopaedics 14:403-412

Forrest, L. (1983). "Current concepts in soft connective tissue wound healing." Br J Surgery 70: 133- 140.

Gomez M et al (1991). The effects of increased tension on healing medial collateral ligaments. Am J Sports Med 19:347-54

Hardy, M. A. (1989). "The biology of scar formation." Physical Therapy 69(12): 1014-1024.

Hill M et al (2003) ; Muscle satellite (stem) cell activation during local tissue injury and repair. J Anat 203:89-99

Hildebrand K et al (1998) ; The effects of platelet dervied growth factor-BB on healing of the rabbit medial collateral ligament. Am J Sp Med 26(4):549-54

Hunter, G. (1998). Specific soft tissue mobilisation in the management of soft tissue dysfunction. Manual Therapy 3(1):2-11

Hurley, J. V. (1985). Inflammation. Muir's Textbook of Pathology. Edward Arnold. 12th, ed.

Leadbetter W. (1992) Cell matrix response in tendon injury. Clin Sports Med 11:533-78

Liu S et al (1995). Collagen in tendon, ligament and bone healing. Clin Orthop 318:265-78

Lorena D et al (2002) ; Normal scarring : importance of myofibroblasts. Wound Repair & Regeneration 10(2):86-92

Niinikoski, J. (1979). Current concepts in wound nutrition. Symposium on Wound Healing, Helsinki, Finland, A Lindgren & Soner.

Peacock, E. E. (1984). Wound Repair. W B Saunders.

Reddy G et al (1999); Matrix remodelling in healing rabbit Achilles tendon. Wound Repair & Regeneration 7(6):518-27

Ryan, G. B. and G. Majno (1977). "Acute inflammation: A review." Am J Pathology 86(1): 184-276.

Vanable, J. (1989). Integumentary potentials and wound healing. Electric Fields in Vertebrate Repair. New York, Alan Liss Inc. 171-224.

Vernon Roberts, B. (1988). "Inflammation 1987; An overview." Agents Actions Suppl 24: 1-18.

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How to Stay Better

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By Michael Hall,

You’ve Got Better, Now Here is the Way to Stay Better

It’s a sad fact of life that many people attend health professionals only to receive at best modest and short term relief. They walk out of the practice and sometimes don’t even get to the car before their pain returns, only to have to go back for another “treatment”. Some professions even market themselves this way, saying to their patients that have to return for their services weekly and monthly year in and year out to maintain their health.

Why don’t I experience permanent relief?

What these health professionals don’t tell you is that you will generally only ever get short term relief with just “hands on” or machine based treatment. The reason is that these modalities and techniques only address symptoms and not the causes of problems. It doesn’t matter whether they are a physiotherapist, chiropractor, osteopath, remedial massage therapist, acupuncturist, etc., passive modalities will generally result in just short term physiological and mechanical changes. You will experience a reduction in discomfort until the stresses that caused your problem are re-applied. It’s like taking a pain-killer for your back pain when it is your 12 hours of stooped posture and / or slouched sitting are the cause of your pain. You might feel better for a short time until you re-aggravate your injury again. Other examples might be a person who has neck pain because they turn their head one way all the time because they have reduced hearing in one ear or a person who is bent forward cycling for hours each day. Unless they correct the way they perform these “injuring” activities, their pain will always return.

These treatments may be doing you more harm than good!

The scary thing about these treatments is that they may be doing you more harm than good. Whilst the treatment may have taken away your ability to feel pain, you may continue to aggravate your injury without even knowing it. Not only that, these treatments may be weakening you, by making you more dependent on the treatment.

How to get permanent relief?

So how do you get permanent relief? Permanent relief can only be achieved if the causes of an injury are corrected. These causes relate to abnormal or excessive forces being place on the body’s tissues to the point that the tissues begin to react adversely eventually leading to pain. The key to achieving permanent relief is to correct these abnormal or excessive stresses permanently.

What works best?

Whilst “hands on” or passive treatment (laser, acupuncture, dry needling, laser etc.) generally achieves short term gains, corrective targeted exercise achieves medium term gains and postural and functional movement correction leads to long term gains. In other words, to get permanent relief, every day posture and movement habits must be corrected. This takes about a month to create new movement or postural habits.

Whilst “hands on” and passive treatment enhances the healing process, corrective exercise improves joint mobility as well as muscle control and strength, correcting posture and movement habits normalises the physical stresses permanently. We believe that it is only by combining, sequencing and packaging these reinforcing elements that you will the best long term results possible.

At Bodywise Health, we believe that life is too short have to return weekly / monthly / forever only to get short term pain relief. Our aim is for you to achieve long term results, so that you can get back to living the life that you want to live.

For more information or for an appointment, please call Bodywise Health on 1 300 263 994.

Please note:

• Rebates are available through your private insurance extras cover;

• For complex or chronic conditions, you may qualify for the EPC (Enhanced Primary Care Program) allowing you to receive 5 allied health services each calendar year with a referral from your GP. For more information, please call Bodywise Health now on 1 300 263 994.

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What is your why?

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By Michael Hall,

What is important to you? What goals and ambitions do you have? How do you want to live your life? Why do you want to get better? What can’t you do because of your injury? What do you want to be able to do?

These are important questions to us at Bodywise Health. You see, you are more than a sore shoulder, a stiff back or a broken leg to us. You are a person with hopes and dreams. You have a family, friends and a social network. You have responsibilities and pressures. We get that.

Yes, we want to resolve your injury problem(s) and restore your health, but more than that, we want you to be able to live the life you want to live, by doing the things you want to do. We understand that the extent to which you can’t perform a movement or do an activity that you want to do is the extent to which you have lost the ability to live. It is the extent to which you have lost your life. The more you can’t do and be, the more life that you have lost. And the cost of a life of missed moments, lost opportunities and times missed doing the things you love to do with the people you love is incalculable. At Bodywise Health, our purpose is to help you get your life back.

For us, it is not just about getting your injury better. More importantly, it is about knowing that you can go shopping, meet your friends, dance the night away, ride your bike, or go for a run, or play with your children, whatever you want to do, because you no longer have your injury. We are not just focused on healing a body part. The bigger picture for us is can you do the things you want to do, with the people that you want to do them because you have overcome your physical obstacles.

It all starts here

Getting better is the starting point, not the end. Once you are better, you have choices that you didn’t have before. The key is to use being better as a springboard to not only to stay better but to continue to become healthier so that you can live your life more fully.

You see, unless you invest actively in your health and your life, you will lose it. Good health obviously depends on a good diet, adequate rest, quiet time and affirming social network. It also depends on correct posture and movement patterns, along with a right balance between cardiovascular, strength and flexibility exercises performed correctly.

What is the best exercise?

In terms of exercise, the best exercises are those that are safe, fun, effective and convenient and from a therapeutic standpoint, it is difficult to go past clinical pilates and hydrotherapy as being some of the best exercise methods available.

Beyond exercise

Beyond exercise and everyday living, we believe that to be at your best, a regular monthly massage is the ideal way to stay in tip top health. It releases tissue tension, relaxes the body and leaves you feeling refreshed, reinvigorated and better prepared to take on life.

The last word

The resources of Bodywise Health will continue to expand to better support you, your health and your life. At the end of the day, you have one life. We want to help you get the most out of it.

For more information or for an appointment, please call Bodywise Health on 1 300 263 994.

Please note:

• Rebates are available through your private insurance extras cover;

• For complex or chronic conditions, you may qualify for the EPC (Enhanced Primary Care Program) allowing you to receive 5 allied health services each calendar year with a referral from your GP. For more information, please call Bodywise Health now on 1 300 263 994.

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Carbs, Weight Loss and Metabolism

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By Michael Hall,

Personal Healthcare

Type 2 diabetes has tripled over the past 10 years and 61% of Australians are now overweight or obese (ABS statistics) and this at a time when apparently it is well known that the best methods for controlling weight involve lifestyle changes in diet and exercise. Clearly something is wrong. Thirty years ago, the Lausanne group showed that carbohydrates in food were a minor contributor to fat accumulation in obesity (1-3). This supported the dietary recommendations at the time – that most of the diet should be made up of carbohydrates, with fat being limited to 30% and protein to the 10-20% range. The worsening health status however, indicates that either:

1. People are not complying with the dietary recommendations, or;
2. These recommendations are not appropriate.

A review has recently been published that re-examines the evidence for low-carbohydrate and Paleolithic diets with reference to the current and proposed dietary guidelines.

Results

Low-Carbohydrate Diets:

  • A number of recent intervention trials have shown that it is advantageous to consume a low-carbohydrate diet with regards to body weight and metabolic control.
  • Nordmann et al. (4) demonstrated that low-carbohydrate diets were at least as effective as low-fat diets for weight loss.
  • Two studies comparing the Atkins, Ornish, and Zone diets on metabolic risk factors and weight loss over one year concluded that low-carbohydrate diets were favourable for weight loss and improvement of cardiovascular risk factors.
  • The OmniHeart trial compared 3 diets:
    • The first consisting of 15% protein, 58% carbohydrate, 27% fat;
    • The second where 10% of energy from carbohydrate was replaced with protein and consisted of 25% protein, 48% carbohydrate, and 27% fat;
    • The third where 10% of calories from carbohydrate was replaced with unsaturated fat and consisted of 15% protein, 48% carbohydrate, 37% fat.
  • The results indicated that the diets where 10% of calories from carbohydrate were replaced with either fat or protein resulted in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures, further improved blood lipid concentrations, and further reductions in cardiovascular risk compared to the first diet.
  • In another study, Reaven found that reducing carbohydrate and replacing it with unsaturated fat resulted in improved cardiovascular disease risk factors.
  • Other short-term studies along with new research reported on the ABC pm program on 17/11/11 has reinforced that a high-protein diet increases a feeling of fullness and leads to reduced spontaneous eating as well as lower body weight, and body fat. These diets have also shown improved insulin sensitivity, glucose control, and decreased leptin concentrations in overweight and obese subjects.

Paleolithic Diet

  • The Paleolithic diet (5) provides a macronutrient distribution in the range of 19-35% protein, 22-40% carbohydrate, and 28-58% fat.
  • Even though this diet was relatively high in fat, it would have included high levels of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids and a much lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio than current Western diets do.
  • Recent studies of the Paleolithic diet have shown that it provides the health benefits of reduced blood pressure, decreased insulin after a meal and glucose responses to an oral glucose tolerance test, and improved blood lipid profiles.

Conclusion

  • These results indicate that diets that involve reducing (NOT eliminating) carbohydrate intake with a corresponding increase in protein or unsaturated fat can result in lower systolic and diastolic blood pressures, improved blood lipid concentrations and reductions in cardiovascular risk.

Bodywise Comment

First, it must be said that these studies are just that studies and anyone, especially if you have a medical condition must seek advice from your doctor or health professional before undertaking a new diet or eating plan. High protein diets can be dangerous for people some people including children, athletes (or very active people) as well as people who have high blood pressure or gout. High protein diets can also cause some severe health complications including constipation, diarrhoea, bad breath, headache, kidney problems and colorectal cancer.

The Dietary Guidelines for Australians states that to “prevent weight gain: be physically active and eat according to you energy needs”. Some people now argue however, that manipulating the amounts of different types of food in one’s diet can assist reducing the overall calorie intake, reducing body fat and weight whilst also lowering blood pressures, improving blood lipid concentrations, and reducing cardiovascular risk. These studies support this position.

The Great Carb Debate

On the face of it, it would seem that the answer is to reduce carbohydrates and increase proteins and unsaturated fat in our diets. However as with so many things in life, it isn’t quite that simple.

Do grains make us fat?

Advocates of high protein/carbohydrate diets argue that grains make us fat. This flies in the face of the fact that we have eaten grains for thousands of years and it is only in the last 20-50 years that being overweight and obesity has become epidemic. In that time, grains have been refined down to make white flour or white rice from which we make breads, cereals, biscuits and cakes. When digested, the individual sugars (principally glucose) from these refined grains are absorbed into the blood stream very quickly causing a large increase in blood glucose. How quickly glucose enters the bloodstream after eating forms the basis for the glycemic index (GI). Foods that cause a large rise in blood glucose have a high GI and those that cause a low rise have a low GI. From a blood glucose standpoint (high GI), white flour is much worse than sugar. After eating cakes, biscuits and other foods that contain flour and other refined grains, blood glucose levels ‘spike’. In response, the pancreas floods the bloodstream with the hormone insulin. Insulin is a storage hormone and stimulates the storage of incoming fat, carbohydrate and protein into muscle, liver and fat cells. The body runs much better when the level of glucose in the blood stream is kept constant. Protein and unrefined carbohydrates (i.e. low GI foods), reduce the rise in blood glucose following a meal, and therefore reduces the subsequent amount of insulin released to deal with the meal. Less insulin means less fluctuation in blood glucose and less likelihood that you will hungry 1-2 hours after eating. Refined grains and processed foods blood glucose to rise too high. Eating food that contains primarily proteins and fats causes blood glucose levels to fall too low. Neither is good.

Refined carbs are the problem

Today, the main problem is that our excessive high carbohydrate / GI diets overload the system, so that either not enough insulin is released or the body’s cells have become desensitised to insulin. Both of these problems mean that glucose is not absorbed into the body’s cells, which leads to high levels of blood glucose and diabetes.

Glucose ‘spikes’ and high levels of insulin after eating high GI foods have been shown to cause damage to blood vessels, inflammation, as well as be a risk for cardiovascular disease. Consequently, if you have any inflammatory condition or cardiovascular disease, it would be a good idea to avoid high GI foods and choose low GI ones instead. Low GI foods include most unrefined grains and fruit. The table lists some common low and high GI carbohydrate foods:

Traditional low GI foods Modern high GI foods

Stone ground bread

Sourdough breads

Heavy grainy breads

Porridge, oats and some muesli

Legumes (lentils and beans)

Most fruit

Rye, barley, quinoa

Cracked wheat, buckwheat

White bread

Regular wholemeal bread

Most white rice

Most breakfast cereals

Most snack bars and biscuits

Potatoes, chips and French fries

Scones, cakes, pikelets, pancakes

Bagels and crumpets

(source: www.glycemicindex.com)

Important points in the great carb debate

  • Wholegrains, legumes (beans) and pulses (lentils) provide essential nutrients and fibre that our bodies need;
  • Wholegrains, legumes and pulses and are cheap and convenient making them easy to include in modern time poor lifestyle;
  • Carbohydrates are essential for optimal thinking (e.g. memory and concentration) as well as exercise and bowel health;
  • The earth’s resources could not support the world’s population if our diets became mainly meat based;
  • Hunter-gatherer man (paleolithic diet) ate more fruit and vegetables as well as parts of animals that we no longer eat. It is difficult if not impossible to replicate a paleolithic diet;
  • The GI is a great instrument in helping us choose better carbohydrates;
  • You can choose not to eat or reduce grain foods but you must seriously increase your uptake of other plant foods.

The healthiest diets for optimising weight control recommend:

  • A modest increase in lean protein and vegetables, with a complementary modest decrease in unrefined carbohydrate and fruits;
    • At mealtimes, try dividing your plate into 2/3’s vegetables, 1/3 protein ;
  • Getting your protein from lean meats, fish, chicken, eggs, legumes and nuts;
    • Best include: game meats (e.g. venison, kangaroo), oily fish (salmon, mackerel), chicken / turkey breast, free range eggs, low fat milk and pro-biotic yoghurt, seafood;
  • Getting your carbohydrates mainly from vegetables, with a less amount from unrefined grains and fruit;
    • Best vegetables include: kale, asparagus, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Asian greens, spinach, rocket, endive, cabbage, capsicum, mushrooms etc.
    • Best grains include: barley, beans, lentils, oats, muesli, quinoa, bulgur wholemeal pasta and breads including grainy sourdough, pumpernickel, stoneground and wholemeal etc
    • Best fruit include: apricots, pomegranates, berries (raspberry, blueberries etc.), citris (oranges etc.), kiwi fruit, papaya
  • Have smaller portions and eat smaller meals (perhaps ½ -2/3’s meal size) more frequently (6 times /day);
  • Eat slowly and when relaxed, putting down your knife and fork between mouthfuls;
  • Drinking plenty of water (e.g. bodyweight in kgs x 0.033 = amount in litres to be drunk each day – reference Paul Chek);
  • Eat fresh foods as much as possible (aim for 1/3 of your vegetables raw);
  • Where possible, eliminate/limit processed foods especially those with flour (unrefined grains) excessive sugar, especially fructose (aim for less than 10%, i.e. less than 10g per 100g)as well as excessive salt;
  • Choose low-fat options when possible (aim for less than 10%, i.e. less than 10g per 100g);
  • Allow yourself occasional treats;
  • Listen to your appetite and enjoy your food.

For more information or for an appointment, please call Bodywise Health on 1 300 263 994.

Please note:

• Rebates are available through your private insurance extras cover;

• For complex or chronic conditions, you may qualify for the EPC (Enhanced Primary Care Program) allowing you to receive 5 allied health services each calendar year with a referral from your GP. For more information, please call Bodywise Health now on 1 300 263 994.

Research Reference:  Nutrition 2010; (26) 141–145.

Other References:

  1. Acheson KJ, Flatt JP, Jequier E. Glycogen synthesis versus lipogenesis after a 500 gram carbohydrate meal in man. Metabolism 1982; 31:1234–40.
  1. Acheson KJ, Schutz Y, Bessard T, Anantharaman K, Flatt JP, Jequier E. Glycogen storage capacity and de novo lipogenesis during massive carbohydrate overfeeding in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1988; 48:240–7.
  2. Acheson KJ, Schutz Y, Bessard T, Ravussin E, Jequier E, Flatt JP. Nutritional influences on lipogenesis and thermogenesis after a carbohydrate meal. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 1984; 246:E62–70.
  3. Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, Keller U, Yancy WS Jr, Brehm BJ, Bucher HC. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2006; 166:285–93.
  4. Eaton SB, Eaton SB III. Paleolithic vs. modern diets—selected pathophysiological implications. Eur J Nutr 2000;
  1. McMillan Price, Joanna & Davie, Judy. Star Foods. ABC Books, 2008.
  1. Chek, Paul.  How to Eat, Move and Be Healthy. California: C.H.E.K. I nstitute, 2006
  1. Tickell, John.  The Great Australian Diet. Melbourne. 2004
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364 Hampton St,

Hampton

Victoria. Australia 3188

03 9533 4257

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